Teacher’s Answer Key
1. He wanted to use research to advance timber growing and use the forest itself as an outdoor teaching lab for silviculture students.
2. Definition: The science of growing timber.
1. Due to a thriving research and technology park located in the triangle between Durham, Raleigh and Chapel Hill, the Durham has experienced rapid population growth and urban development.
2. Definition: Building human structures--roads, houses, and business districts--on the landscape.
1.Meanwhile, the large patches of urban forest throughout the city and county provides area residents with many benefits.
2. Trees and/or forests in an urban setting.
1. With over 300,000 people visiting the forest each year, Duke University has a large population of stake-holders who are very passionate about the benefits of this urban forest to their community
2. People who use or devote time or money to something.
Worksheet 2 Essay Analysis
- How many centuries have people been managing the forest in the region now called Durham, North Carolina? More than 5. Native Americans used it for "hundreds of years" and Durham residents since 1700's.
- What was the impact of the tobacco plant on this region?
Entrepreneurial farmers cleared acres and acres of forest to be able to turn the tobacco plant into cash for the next forty years.
- What was the legacy of Mr. Duke's tobacco fortune on the region?
In 1924, James B Duke, son of Washington Duke, invested a substantial amount of the family's fortune to expand the Methodist-owned Trinity College into a new university. He would honor his father by renaming it Duke University.
- What was Mr. Duke's purpose for purchasing the land that was to become Duke Forest?
Ample land and good access to roads and water were cornerstones of J.B. Duke's successful tobacco factories. He recommended the same thing for the new University.
- What was Mr. Korstian's goal for Duke Forest?
He wanted to take the best of what he'd seen at the School's of Forestry at both Harvard and Yale to create a self-supporting demonstration research forest that would model scientific forestry practices, use research to advance timber growing and be an outdoor teaching lab for silviculture students.
- How does the Nicholas School of the Environment use Duke Forest today?
The research carried out in the forest is about how to grow big trees and how to understand big ecosystems.
- Who else uses Duke Forest today and for what purpose?
With over 300,000 people visiting the forest each year, Duke University has a large population of stake-holders who are very passionate about the benefits of this urban forest to their community.
Worksheet 3: Map Analysis
1. How many squares were open or green space 1931? 33 squares
2. How many quadrants are open or green space in 2006? 7 squares
3. By what percentage did the amount of open or green space decrease in the 75 year time period? 33-7 = 26; 26/33 = 78%. The amount of open space declined 78% from 1931 to 2006.
4. If the rate of decline in the amount of green or open space stays the same for the next 75 years, how many quadrants will be open or green space in 2081? .78*7 = 5.46; 7-5.46 = 1.54 squares. If the rate stays the same for the next 75 years, then there will only 1.54 squares of open space remaining.
5. What, in your opinion, was the value of Duke Forest to Durham residents in 1931?
Not much because it was hard to tell any difference between Duke Forest and the surrounding landscape.
6. What was the value of Duke Forest to Durham residents in 2006?
Significant recreational area. It stands out from the rest of the landscape as a rare greenspace.
7. What do you think the value of Duke Forest will be in 2081? Even more valuable for the quality of life of the residents.
Worksheet 4: Forest Management: Then and Now
1. How many people visited Duke Forest in 1932-1934 for recreation?
Over 4000 people
2. What research was conducted in the forest in 1932-1934?
A study was initiated to determine the soil-leaf moisture relationships between five different forest types in the Duke Forest.
3. What were the primary management activities carried out by Korstian in 1932- 1934? Planting 92 acres planted of trees. Detecting and suppressing fires. Servicing the picnic areas. Overseeing the CCC and research.
4. How many people visited Duke Forest in 1994 for recreation?
5. What research was conducted in the forest in 1994?
A super-site for a radar experiment by the Space Shuttle Endeavor and measuring the effects of carbon dioxide on a stand of trees and the earth and foliage beneath.
6. What were the primary management activities carried out by Edeburn in 1994? Prescribed burning or cutting to sustain a certain age or stand of trees. Maintaining the 22 miles of roads and fire trails and managing public access. Containing outbreaks of forest pests.
7. What problems do you think the recreational users of Duke Forest create for Duke University? Trash, bicycle ruts, soil compaction, scaring wildlife, disturbing research sites.
8. What benefits do you think the recreational users of Duke Forest offer Duke University?
Goodwill in the eyes of the students and the community. Increased number of users provide safety for users. Increased users will report any serious problems to the University.
Worksheet 5: Public Opinion Analysis
Summarize the view of each of the following characters to each of the following questions:
Real estate agent Nick Tennyson: Willing to make money handling the real estate transactions but would be sorry to see the forest go.
Duke University Senior Vice President Eugene McDonald: Feels development may be harming the forest for research purposes. Wants to know just exactly what the land is worth on the open market. Wonders if selling the land could benefit other important Duke projects. Wants to make sure the community knows just who owns the forest.
Faculty Chair and Romance Language Professor Philip Stewart: Doesn't believe the University should decide policy based upon the report. Sees the report as a tool for future decision making.
Dean of School of Forestry George Dutrow: Believes the outdoor research laboratory is the best in the nation, and doesn't want to lose any of the forest.
Urban Land Institute report: Finds it hard to justify locking up the forest solely for the School of Forestry when the value of the land in dollars has tripled.
County Planner Barry M. Jacobs: Wants the University to be considerate of the quality of life the Forest brings the county. Doesn't want the land developed. Has already made plans and spent money for the county based upon the belief the land would be a forest.
City Planner Paul Norby: Doesn't believe the area needs more strip malls. Believes Duke wants to keep it as a forest.
Assessment I: Test
1. What was the state of the landscape surrounding Duke Forest in 1931? Abandoned agricultural land.
2. What is the state of the landscape surrounding Duke Forest today? Highly urbanized.
3. What were the forest management activities in 1931? Trees were planted as an important learning lab for the forestry students.
4. What are the forest management activities in 1994? The Forest is managed for experiments in silviculture and ecosystem processes.
5. What are the benefits to the community of Duke Forest today?
It is an urban forest that makes scenic roads, shaded sidewalks and nature available to hikers, bikers, joggers, dog-walkers and nature lovers.
6. List the variety of people inside and outside the University (stakeholders) who have an interest in what happens at Duke Forest today. Board of Trustees, forestry faculty, other faculty, real estate agents, county planners, city planners, hikers, bikers, nature lovers, joggers and dog walkers.
7. In your opinion, does Duke University have any obligation to the citizens of Durham and Orange County? Why?
Yes, a standing forest ecosystem is a resource of great value to the public and Duke University should be a good neighbor to the community.
No, Duke University must look out for its own interests over the interests of the community.