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From Forest to Farm and Back Again explores the history of land use from colonial settlement to the emergence of modern America at Harvard Forest in Petersham, Massachusetts. Students will examine, interpret, and analyze physical and cultural patterns of forest use and management over a 300-year period.
Image Caption: Wilderness Home Lycoming County Historical Society, PA.
- The student will understand how the values and institutions of European economic life took root in the colonies.
(Era 2, Colonization and Settlement: Standard 3)
- The student will understand the impact of the American Revolution on politics, economy, and society.
(Era 3, Revolution and the New Nation; Standard 2)
- The student will understand the impact of territorial expansion between 1801 and 1861 on communities in the east.
(Era 4, Expansion and Reform, Standard 1)
- The student will identify and use processes important to reconstructing and reinterpreting the past, such as using a variety of sources, providing, validating, and weighing evidence for claims, checking credibility of sources, and searching for causality.
(Standard II, Time, Continuity & Change)
- The student will examine, interpret, and analyze the physical and cultural patterns and their interactions, such as land use, settlement patterns, and ecosystem changes.
(Standard III, People, Places and Environments)
- Organize field trips to two different forests, one managed by industry and one managed by state parks. Compare and contrast the forest management activities and the condition of the forest.
- Research the 400 year history of a local forest.
Team Teaching Possibilities
Technology: Have students create a Power Point presentation describing the changes to the forest ecosystem (clearing forests, farm abandonment, return of second-growth forests) in Petersham, Massachusetts following the arrival of the Europeans.
English: Using the Buy Herbal Soma, the historical record (Buy Phentermine Ireland), and Valium Online Store as a guide, ask students to create 3 short, fictional, first-hand accounts (in the form of journal entries) that describe the physical landscape of Petersham, Massachusetts in 1700, 1740, and 1850. In addition to describing the changes in the land, students also should speculate about how alterations in the landscape may have affected the daily lives of people in the area between 1700 and 1850.
Math: Since Buy Ambien Cheap incorporates math skills, this exercise could be introduced in a social studies class and completed in a math class. Alternatively, math teachers could build upon this activity by having students analyze and answer questions regarding historical maps that require similar mathematical skills.
Science: Because a major theme of the activity focuses on how the arrival of Europeans affected the various forest ecosystems over time, science teachers could have students study how either plant life or wildlife changed in a local forest (following European colonization) as a result of human interaction with the land between 1700 and 1850.
Clawson, Marion. Forest Depletion and Growth. Encyclopedia of American Forest and Conservation History. Edited by Richard C. David. New York: Macmillan, 1983.
Cronon, William. Changes in the Land: Indians, Colonists and the Ecology of New England. New York: Hill and Wang, 1983.
Foster, W.H.H. Stepping Back to Look Forward: A History of the Massachusetts Forest. Edited by Charles H. W. Foster. Petersham , Mass.: Harvard Forest, Harvard University, 1998.
Foster, David, Glenn Motzkin, & Benjamin Slater. Buy Phentermine In Australia Ecosystems 1 (1998): 96-119.
MacCleery, Douglas. American Forests: A History of Resiliency and Recovery. Durham, NC: Forest History Society, 2011. [Buy Discount Phentermine Online]
Raup, Hugh. “The View From John Sanderson’s Farm: A Perspective for the Use of the Land.” Forest History 10 (April, 1966): 2 – 11. Cheap Zolpidem Over Night]
Tager, J. & Wilkie, R. A., Historical Atlas of Massachusetts. Amherst, Mass: University of Massachusetts. 1991.
Whitney, P. Worcester County: America’s First Frontier. Worcester Mass: Isaiah Thomas, 1793.
Forest History Society Buy Phentermine Capsules on forestry, conservation and environmental history. Buy Real Diazepam Uk Resource for: American Forests: A History of Resiliency and Recovery, The Greatest Good Film.
Order Ambien A base for research and education in forest biology, silviculture and forest management, soil , forest ecology, and economics.